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Ambon / Maluku Glossary

If you have any additions please send them to me - Send email to . Many thanks to Marinyo Maluku for his valuable contributions.
ABRI Angkatan Bersenjanta Republik Indonesia - Indonesian military forces composed of Army, Navy and Air Force. See also - ADRI, ALRI, AURI.
Acang Nickname for Muslims (see also Obet / Obed). Derived from popular Muslim name “Hassan”.
ACF Action Contre la Faim - Action Against Hunger - International NGO.
Adat The sacred customary beliefs handed down by the ancestors. Cultural code of conduct and norms, what is acceptable and expected, common law.
ADRI Angkatan Darat Republik Indonesia - Indonesian Army.
Agats Christian children fighters. The agats is a tiny kind of insect that can sting annoyingly.
Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah Congregation of the Followers of the Prophet. Fundamental Muslim Movement, backing up Jihad fighters.
AJI Independent Journalists Association.
Akar Rumput Grass Roots movement.
Ale Moluccan slang for “you”. A famous expression is: ALE RASA BETA RASA – the Ambonese word BETA (stress on the first syllable) = I / me. The Indonesian word RASA = feel. So the meaning is: “I feel what you feel”. If you have pain, I have no less pain. If you are happy, I am happy too.
Alif'uru Moluccan peoples' ancestors.
ALRI Angkatan Laut Republic Indonesia - Indonesian Navy.
Ambon Ekspres Local newspaper. Muslim, split off from “Suara Maluku” for practical reasons since the conflict started.
AMMB Aliansi Mahasiswa Maluku Bersatu - Alliance of United Moluccan Students.
Armed Artileri Medan - Field Artillery.
AURI Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia - Indonesian Air Force.
Baileo Adat village sacred meeting place, also a local NGO.
Baguala The most eastern of the 3 Kecamatans of the city of Ambon. The two others are Nusaniwe and Sirimau.
Bakin State Intelligence Coordinating Board 2nd ref board.
Bakornas PBP National Coordinating Board for Disaster Management and IDPs / Refugees.
Baku Bae Reconciliation movement. “Baku Bae” = Moluccan slang for “Saling (bersikap) baik”.
BAP Berkas berita acara pemeriksaan - police investigation reports.
Bapa Raja Traditional Maluku village leader.
BAPPEDA Regional Development Agency.
Basudara Moluccan slang derived from Indonesian “bersaudara”. “Saudara” = brother/sister/cousin and still farther up. The prefix “ber-” always means “having”. So “Basudara” means “having each other as “saudara” = brotherhood.
Becak Traditional three-wheel bicycle taxi.
BIA Armed Forces Intelligence.
BIMM Badan Imarah Muslim Maluku. Union of all Muslims in the Moluccas, established at the Great Muslim Conference which was held in Ambon from 19 to 22 June, 2001. BIMM is short for “Association that manages/coordinates the Muslims of the Moluccas”. See also Immarat / Immarah / Amaran.
BIN Badan Intelijen Negara - National Intelligence Agency.
BPDPM Badan Pengawasan Daerah Provinsi Maluku - Moluccas Control Committee
BPKP Moluccas Development and Finance Audit Body
BPS Bureau of Statistics.
Brawijaya Regional Military Command in East Java.
Brimob Police Mobile Brigade.
Buka Puasa Breaking the fast.
Bulog National Logistics Agency.
BUMN State-owned enterprises.
Bupati Head of a Kabupaten.
Camat Head of a Kecamatan / sub-district (subdivision of Kabupaten).
CARDI Consortium for Assistance to Refugees and the Displaced in Indonesia (International NGOs).
CARE Care International - International NGO.
CGI Consultative Group on Indonesia (was IGGI).
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency.
Coker Short for Cowo-Cowo Keren, Ambonese, meaning “Bold Youngsters” or Cowok Keristen, the "Christian Boys".
CORDAID Catholic Organisation for Relief and Development.
CWS Church World Service - International NGO.
Da’i A specialist in matters of dakwah.
Dakwah Propagation of the faith (Islam).
Darul Ulum Local NGO.
DDII Indonesian Islam Da'wah Federation.
DEPSOS Social Department.
Desa Village.
Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesian Islamic Faith-Strengthening Board.
Diponegoro Regional Military Command in Central Java.
DPH Dewan Pimpinan Harian.
DPRD Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah - Provincial House of Representatives.
Fatwa Authoritative Islamic instruction.
FKASWJ / FKAWJ Forum Komunikasi Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah - Communication Forum. Opposed to Malino II agreement.
FKM Front Kedaulatan Maluku - Maluku Sovereignty Front.
FMUMM Forum Musyawarah Umat Muslim Maluku -  Moluccas Muslim Meeting Forum. Opposed to Malino II agreement.
FPIM Front Pembela Islam Maluku - The Islamic Defenders Front of Moluccas - led by Husni Putuhena. Opposed to Malino II agreement.
FPIS Front Pemuda Islam Surakarta (Java).
FSPB Forum Silatuhrahmi Perempuan Baguala - local Muslim women's group opposed to Malino II agreement. (Baguala is the most eastern of the 3 Kecamatans of the city of Ambon. The two others are Nusaniwe and Sirimau).
FSUIM Forum Silaturahmi Umat Islam Maluku. Opponents of the agreement in Malino have united in the FSUIM.
GAM Gerakan Aceh Merdeka - Free Aceh Movement.
Gandong Moluccan slang, derived from the Indonesian word KANDUNGAN, which means “womb”. There is a popular nostalgic Moluccan song “Satu hati satu gandong” = “One heart one womb” (as if coming from one mother). Applied to connections between villages descended from the same patriarch.
GMIH Gereja Masehi Injili Halmahera - Evangelical Messiah Church of Halmahera.
GMKI Gerakan Mahasiswa Kristen Indonesia - Indonesia Christian's student movement.
GMN Gerakan Moral Nasional - National Moral Movement. Leaders of this forum - Kyai Haji Hasyim Muzadi of the Nahdathul Ulama, Fr. I. Ismartono SJ in name of the Catholic Church and Minister A.A. Yewangoe of the union of Protestant Churches in Indonesia.
Golkar Golongan Karya - Functional Group Party, literally “Work Party”.
Gotong-royong Traditional voluntary work for common benefit.
GPK The government term meaning peace disturbing movement or security disturbance groups.
GPM Gereja Protestan Maluku - Moluccan Protestant Church. The largest and most influential Protestant Church in the Moluccas. Sinode GPM = Leading board of the GPM.
GPP Gerakan Perempuan Peduli - Concerned Women's movement.
Halong Halong naval base in Ambon.
Hawear signs Severe adat custom. Adat No-Trespass signs. Consists of some wooden stakes, planted in the earth, “decorated” with palm leaves (coconut leaf fences). Nobody will try to trespass, fearing the wrath of unknown forces.
HMI Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam - Muslim Students' Association.
IBRA Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency.
IGGI Consultative Group on Indonesia - replaced by CGI.
ICMC International Catholic Migration Commission - International NGO.
ICMI Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim Indonesia - Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals.
ICW Indonesian Corruption Watch.
IDP Internally Displaced Person.
IED Improvised Explosive Devise.

Ikatan Persaudaraan Muslim Nusa Ina - Nusa Ina Muslim Association. see Nusa Ina.

Immarat / Immarah / Amaran Regulations, command, order to fulfill.
IMC International Medical Corps - International NGO.
IMI Ikhwanul Muslim Indonesia.
INGO International Non-Governmental Organisation.
IRC International Rescue Committee - International NGO.
IRD International Relief and Development.
JI Jamaah Islamiyah. JI is a shadowy organization with bases reportedly in Singapore and Malaysia. It allegedly aims to establish an Islamic state in the region. Leader - Abu Bakar Ba'asyir. Involved in Maluku.
Jihad Defined as a "just war" in the holy Koran.
JRS Jesuit Refugee Service - International NGO.
Ka...... see Kepala.
Kabupaten District, provinces are divided into districts, district head = Bupati.
Kapitan Advises the Raja in developing war strategies.
KAMI Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Muslim Indonesia - United Action of Indonesian Muslim Students.
KAMMI Indonesian Muslim Students Action Front.
Kandepag Kantor Departemen Agama - Office of the Department of Religious Affairs.
KASAD Kepala Staf Angkatan Darat - Army Chief of Staff..
Kecamatan Sub-District, headed by Camat.
Kepala / Ka....... The person in charge of an organisation, i.e. Kapolri, Kapolda, Kapolres, Kades, Kakandepag.
Keuskupan Keuskupan Diocese (derived from Latin Episcopus = bishop / uskup).
Kewang Traditional institution that is authorized to manage natural resources and the people's economy as well as to control the implementation of traditional regulations.
KISDI Indonesian Committee for Solidarity with the Islamic World.
Kodam  Komando Daerah Militer - .
Kodim Komando Distrik Militer - Military District Command.
Komnas HAM National Commission on Human Rights.
Kompas National newspaper.
Kontras Komisi untuk Orang Hilang dan Korban Tindak Kekerasan / Commission for Missing Persons and Victims of Violence.
Kopassus Komando Pasukan Khusus - Army Special Forces.
Kopkamtib Komando operasional keamanan dan ketertiban - Operational Command for the Restoration of Security and Order, a now defunct internal security agency.
Koran Info Local daily newspaper.
Korem Military command post.
Kostrad Komando Strategi Darat / Infanteri - Army / Infantry Strategic Reserve Command.
KPK2KM Komite Penegakan Kebenaran Keadilan dan Penghentian Kekerasan Maluku - organization of Muslim and Christian lawyers from the Moluccas.
KPPMM Komite Penyidik Pelanggaran HAM dan Mediasi Maluku - the Committee on Investigation of Human Rights Violations and Intermediation in the Moluccas.
Latupati  Gathering of regional adat elders.
Laskar Jihad Jihad Militia - an external group involved in Maluku conflict. Opposed to Malino II agreement. (Laskar Jihad Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah). Jakarta human-rights activist Bonar Naipospos told Asia Times Online: "General Suparman is one of the generals who was behind the extremist Jihad groups. He set up militias composed of gangsters and religious fanatics to counter student demonstrations in 1998. One of these militias, Pram Swarkasa, became the embryo of Laskar Jihad."
Laskar Mujahidin Mujahidin Militia - an external group involved in Maluku conflict. Opposed to Malino II agreement.
Laskar Yesus Christian Militia.
Latupati Adat chiefs.
Linggis Muslims children fighters. A linggis  is a crowbar, short but powerful.
Makan patita traditional meal called.
Malino Malino peace agreement regarding Poso situation (also the town where the agreement was signed).
Malino II Malino II peace agreement between major Muslim and Christian groups regarding Maluku conflict.
Mapolres Precinct Police Headquarters.
Marinyo Person who supports and helps Raja disseminate information, announcer.
MCH Mother Child Health.
MCI Mercy Corps International - International NGO.
Merdeka Freedom.
MSF Médécins Sans Frontières - Doctors Without Borders - International NGO.
Muhammadiyah Muslim organisation in Indonesia. Chairman Syafii Ma'arif. Supports Malino II agreement.
MUI Majelis Ulama Indonesia  - Ulama Council of Indonesia.
Nadhlatul Ulama Muslim organisation in Indonesia.
New Order politics Under Soeharto from 1966 to 1998.
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation.
NII Nation of Islamic Indonesia.
NKRI Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia - Undivided State of the Republic of Indonesia.
NU Nahdlatul Ulama - Muslim organisation in Indonesia.
Nunusaku The origin of Moluccan people, a mountain which stood between Manusela and Piru on Ceram island.
Nusa Ina The island of Seram / Ceram.
Nusaniwe One of 3 Kecamatans of the city of Ambon. The two others are Baguala and Sirimau.
Obed / Obet Nickname for Christians. Ambon TV explains it as an abbreviation for “Robert”. However, this is incorrect. Protestants often give their children names from the Old Covenant; very popular is the name “Obed” – the grandfather of king David (see Book Rut 4:17.20).
OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (United Nations).
Ojeg Motorcycle taxi.
OPM Organisasi Papua Merdeka - Free Papua Organisation.
OPSLIHKAM Operation for Restoring Security.
OTI Office of Transition Initiatives - USAID.
Pamswakarsa Civil guard established by Latupati.
PAN National Mandate Party.
PANGKOOPSLIKAM Panglima Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan / Operational Chief Commander for Restoring Security.
Parkindo Partei Kristen Indonesia - Indonesian Christian Party (Protestant political party).
Partai Keadilan Justice Party.
Paskhas Air Force Special Forces.
Pattimura Moluccan national hero, Kapitan aka, Pattimura Thomas Matulessy, hung by the Dutch colonial ruler in 1817.
PBB Partei Bulan Bintang - Crescent and Star Party.
PBHI Perhimpunan Bantuan Hukum Indonesia - human rights organisation.
PDI Partei Demokrasi Indonesia.
PDI-P Partei Demokrasi Indonesia - Perjuangan / Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (under Megawati split from the PDI).
PDS Penguasa Darurat Sipil - Civil Emergency Administrator for the nation, the President.
PDSD Penguasa Darurat Sipil Daerah Maluku - Provincial Civil Emergency Administrator, the Governor.
Pela (click for more details) A form of adat or common law. A form of alliance between two or more villages. A sort of closeness or togetherness.
PGI Persekutuan Gereja Indonesia – Indonesia Synod of Protestant Churches. Union of most Protestant Churches in Indonesia, based in Jakarta.
PMI Palang Merah Indonesia - Indonesian Red Cross.
PMKRI Perhimpunan Mahasiswa Katolik Republik Indonesia - Association of Catholic Students of Indonesia.
Polda Polisi Daerah - Provincial level police.
Polindes Poliklinik Bersalin Desa - village level maternity clinics (Field Health Post).
Polres Polisi Resort - (subdivision of Polda).
POLRI Polisi Republik Indonesia - Indonesian National level Police.
Pomdam Pattimura military command.
Posyandu Pos Pelayanan Terpadu - Integrated health service.
PPP United Development Party.
PPRC Pasukan Pemukul Reaksi Cepat. Kostrad fast reaction force.
Preman Hoodlums, gangsters, criminals.
Puskesmas Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat - Primary health centre.
Puskodalops Maluku Control and Operations Command Center.
Puspaskup Amboina Pusat Pengembangan Karya Pastoral Keuskupan Amboina.
Pustu Puskesmas Pembantu - primary health unit.
Raja King, traditional Maluku village leader.
Rajam Execution by stoning.
Ramadhan Muslim fasting month.
RMS Republik Maluku Selatan - Republic of South Maluku - Also refers to South Maluku Independence Organisation.
RSU Rumah Sakit Umum - Government Hospital in Kudamati, Ambon.
Salam Muslim.
SAMNM Satgas Amar Maruf Nahi Mungkar led by Muhamad Attamimi, Rustam Kastor and Ustad Bahasoan. Opposed to Malino II agreement.
Saniri Village elder - man, see also seniri.
Saniri Besar Village council.
Saniri Negeri Legislative body, comprised of all village institutions.
Sarani Christian.
Satgas Satuan Tugas - Unarmed para-police unit who deal with public disturbances.
Satkorlak PBP Provincial Coordinating Unit for Disaster Management and IDPs / Refugees.
Satlak PBP District Executing Unit for Disaster Management and IDPs / Refugees.
SC UK Save the Children United Kingdom - International NGO.
SD elementary school.
Seniri Village elder - woman, see also Saniri.
Sharia' Islamic law.
Sirimau One of 3 Kecamatans of the city of Ambon. The two others are Baguala and Nusaniwe.
Siwalima Basic structure of Adat Society, also Ambon daily newspaper (Christian) and a museum in Ambon.
SLTP First secondary school.
SMU Sekolah Menengah Umum - high schools / upper secondary school.
SPMM Radio station - Suara Perjuangan Muslim Maluku / Voice of the Moluccas Muslim Struggle. Opposed to Malino II agreement.
STAIN Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri, State-owned Islamic Studies Institute.
STIA Trinitas Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Administrasi - Academy for administration & Trade.
Suara Maluku Local newspaper - Christian. At the start of the conflict split up in Suara Maluku and Ambon Express for practical reasons. Suara = voice.
Suara Merdeka National newspaper.
Suara Pembaruan National newspaper.
Tapak Ambon Team Advokasi Penyelesaian Kasus Ambon - Advocacy Team for the Resolution of the Ambon Case.
Tempo National newspaper.
THR Taman Hiburan Rakyat, a local name of the location.
TIIN Tim Investigasi Independen Nasional - Independent national investigation team.
TNI Tentara National Indonesia - Indonesian Armed Forces.
TPG Tim Pengacara Gereja (of the GPM) - Church Advocacy Team.
TPG Tim Penyidik Gabungan - joint investigation team. Investigate on law enforcement and to prevent intervention by foreign groups.
TPM Tim Pengacara Muslim - Muslim Lawyers Team.
Tramtib Municipal guard units, a civilian corps employed by district governments to enforce local codes and regulations.
TVRI TV Republik Indonesia - national TV network with local programming.
UKIM UKIM Universitas Kristen Indonesia - Indonesian Christian University Maluku (Protestant).
UKK Unsur Kesatuan Komando - united command of the Army (TNI Angkatan Darat).
UNCR United Nations Resource Centre in Ambon.
UNDP United Nations Development Programme.
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund.
Unidar Universitas Darussalam - Islamic University of Darussalam, Ambon - Tulehu.
Unpatti Universitas Pattimura - Pattimura University.
USAID United States Agency for International Development.
Ustadz Muslim preachers.
UXO Unexploded Ordnance.
Wirabuana Regional Military Command in South Sulawesi.
WIT Waktu Indonesia Timur - Indonesian Eastern Time Zone.
WVI World Vision International - International NGO.
YDBM Moluccan scholarship fund.
YLBHI Foundation of the Indonesian Legal Aid Institute.
Yon Gab Batalyon Gabungan - Joint Battalion.
Zipur Army Battalion.

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